Fee Schedule for Year 2021
All orders received before 2pm are shipped out the same business day.
All orders received after 2pm or on weekends or holidays are shipped out the following business day.
24/7 online status check and account management available for all tests.
Step 2 - Collect DNA Sample
The DNA Kit contains all of the materials and instructions you need to collect the DNA sample quickly and discreetly from the privacy of your own home. The sample is collected by rubbing swabs gently inside the mouth against the cheek. The collection is fast, simple and painless and takes only a few seconds to do. After the sample is collected, simply send the samples back to the laboratory for testing using the return package provided in the kit.
Step 3 - Receive Results
Once the laboratory receives your sample, testing begins immediately and is completed within 3 to 5 business days. You can track the status of your test online 24/7. As soon as testing is complete, the final results report is released to you immediately. You can choose to receive your results by mail, email, or both.
Strong, healthy bones are important for providing structure and anchoring muscles and ligaments, protecting our internal organs and storing essential minerals.
During childhood, adolescence and as young adults, new bone is produced more quickly than old bone is broken down, until reaching a peak bone mass at around 30 years of age. Bone remodeling continues throughout adulthood, but bone mass slowly decreases, as the old bone removal (resorption) is quicker than new bone production (ossification).
Poor bone growth as a child, and greater than normal bone loss as an adult can both contribute towards an increased risk of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by weak and brittle bones. People with osteoporosis are highly susceptible to bone fractures, often with minimal trauma. It’s a disease affecting the elderly that becomes more apparent with age. Fractures from osteoporosis are more common than heart attack, stroke and breast cancer combined.
Osteoarthritis is another health issue that frequently affects elderly people. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and occurs when the protective cartilage within the joints wears down.
Factors affecting bone health
There are several factors that contribute to bone health, including gender, hormone levels, ethnicity, physical activity, medications, nutrient uptake and genetics.
Women have an increased risk of osteoporosis, due to a lower bone mass and decreased estrogen levels that occur at menopause. Variations in male hormones also influence the risk, as men with lower testosterone levels can have a lower bone mass.
Hispanics and African-Americans tend to have higher bone densities and a reduced risk of osteoporosis compared to Caucasians and Asians. Weight-bearing exercises (e.g. running, walking and dancing) help to strengthen bones, hence a sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of poor bone health. The long-term use of many medications (e.g. corticosteroids) can also reduce bone mass.
Genetic variation is a major factor influencing bone health, and variations in the CYP2R1, GC, WNT16, GDF5 and COL1A1 genes are all associated with bone and joint health issues.
Strong bones require adequate calcium in the diet. Vitamin D is also essential, because calcium cannot be absorbed without healthy vitamin D levels. Decreased vitamin D levels and activity result in reduced calcium absorption and increased risk of osteoporosis.
- CYP2R1 - Vitamin D from the diet or triggered by sun exposure must be converted to the physiologically active form by a two-step process. Cytochrome P450 2R1 (encoded by the CYP2R1 gene) is the enzyme responsible for the first conversion step from vitamin D to calcidiol. Variants of this enzyme are associated with reduced enzyme activity and reduced levels of active vitamin D.
- GC - The vitamin D binding protein (encoded by the GC gene) is required to transport active vitamin D around the body and into the cells. Variations of this protein reduce the efficiency of vitamin D transport and cellular uptake.
The Wnt signaling pathway
The Wnt signaling pathway is important for signaling the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts – the cells responsible for bone formation.
- WNT16 - This gene encodes a protein from the Wnt signaling pathway. Inactivating variations of WNT 16v disrupt the Wnt cascade, resulting in reduced osteoblasts and bone formation. This leads to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis.
Bone, joint and cartilage maintenance
The maintenance, development and repair of bones, joints and cartilage is a lifelong process, but decreases as we age.
- GDF5 - The GDF5 gene encodes an important regulator protein for the maintenance, development and repair of bones, joints and cartilage. A variant of this gene reduces the expression of the regulator protein and increases the risk of osteoarthritis and fractures. This variant is also associated with an increased risk of congenital hip dysplasia, which is an instability or dislocation of the hip joint in infants and young children due to a poorly formed hip joint.
Collagen is an essential strength and structural component and the most abundant protein in mammals. It exists as a rigid form in bones, a gradient form in cartilage and a compliant form for many other tissues (e.g. skin, muscle, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels).
- COL1A1 - The COL1A1 gene encodes the major component of type I collagen, found in bone, skin and tendons. A variant of COL1A1 affects the formation of this collagen and is associated with decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
DNA testing for osteoporosis
A simple DNA test can determine which versions (alleles) of the CYP2R1, GC, WNT16, GDF5 and COL1A1 genes a person has inherited. This will allow identifying the risk of osteoporosis early on, so preventative measures such as weight training can be started early on.
Private Osteoporosis Test
Results in 2 to 4 weeks
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Starting at NT$14170